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DOI:10.12357/cjea.20230478
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安徽稻油两熟不同种植方式下气候资源配置和演变
金文俊1, 陈小飞1, 陈金华2, 韦志1, 雷伟侠1, 孔令聪1, 杜祥备1
1.安徽省农业科学院作物研究所;2.安徽省农业气象中心
摘要:  安徽沿江地区稻-油复种模式下茬口衔接紧密、光温资源紧张, 季节间气候资源配置备受关注。移栽和直播是补充和调配气候资源的有效种植方式, 而稻油两熟制中不同种植方式下各生长季气候资源配置、演变特征以及对未来气候变化的适应性尚不清晰。本研究以安徽沿江地区27个气象站1992—2022年的气温、日照时数、总辐射和降水等气象资料为基础, 分析了不同种植方式下稻-油复种季节间气候资源配置与演变特征以及光温生产潜力。结果表明, 近30年稻-油复种模式下季节间总辐射量、日照时数和光合生产潜力均呈下降趋势, 气温、降水量和光温生产潜力呈上升趋势。水稻季移栽和直播方式下总辐射量倾向率分别为?27.9 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1和?28.8 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1, 油菜季分别为?40.5 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1和?26.6 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1。水稻季移栽和直播方式下平均日最高气温倾向率分别为0.30 ℃·(10a)?1 (P<0.05)和0.24 ℃·(10a)?1, 最高达32.70 ℃ (2022年, 青阳)。油菜季移栽和直播方式下平均气温倾向率分别为0.36 ℃·(10a)?1 (P<0.01)和0.39 ℃·(10a)?1 (P<0.01), 移栽方式下平均气温较直播方式高0.96~1.43 ℃。稻油两熟制两季均面临光资源持续下降和气温不断上升等问题, 采用移栽方式可通过延长作物生育期增加光、温资源配置, 提高光温生产潜力。同时, 适当推迟移栽期将有利于应对油菜苗期和水稻花期增温。直播方式下宜采用高光效品种和构建温光资源高效利用作物群体。
关键词:  稻-油复种  资源配置  气候变化  种植方式
中图分类号:S511.4+1; S565.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFD2301401)
Climate resource allocation and evolution of rice-oilseed rape double cropping system under different planting patterns in Anhui Province
JIN Wenjun1, CHEN Xiaofei1, CHEN Jinhua2, WEI Zhi1, LEI Weixia1, KONG Lingcong1, DU Xiangbei1
1.Crop Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Anhui Agricultural Meteorological Center
Abstract:  Along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province, the rice-oilseed rape multiple cropping system shows tight stubble convergence together with light and temperature resources, thus inter-seasonal climate resource allocation has attracted a lot of attention. Transplanting and direct seeding are effective planting patterns to supplement and deploy climate resources, whereas the climate resource allocation and evolutionary characteristics as well as adaptation to future climate change of each growing season within the rice-oilseed rape double cropping system under different planting patterns are not yet clear. Based on meteorological datasets such as air temperature, sunshine hours, total radiation, and precipitation from 1992 to 2022 at 27 meteorological stations along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province, the inter-seasonal climate resource allocation and evolution characteristics as well as the radiation-temperature production potential of rice-oilseed rape multiple cropping system under different planting patterns were analyzed in this study. The results have shown that inter-season total radiation, sunshine hours and photosynthetic production potential decreased while air temperature, rainfall and radiation-temperature production potential increased under the rice-oilseed rape multiple cropping system in the last 30 years. The total radiation tendency rate was ?27.9 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1 and ?28.8 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1 in rice season and ?40.5 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1 and ?26.6 MJ·m?2·(10a)?1 in oilseed rape season under transplanting and direct seeding patterns, respectively. In rice season, the tendency rate of mean daily maximum temperature was 0.30 °C·(10a)?1 (P<0.05) and 0.24 °C·(10a)?1 under the two patterns, respectively. The mean daily maximum temperature in rice season reached to the highest of 32.70 °C (2022, Qingyang County, Chizhou City, Anhui Province, China). In oilseed rape season, the mean temperature tendency rates were 0.36 °C·(10a)?1 (P<0.01) and 0.39 °C·(10a)?1 (P<0.01) under the two patterns, respectively, with higher mean temperature under transplanting pattern than that under direct seeding. The radiation-temperature production potential tendency rate was lower in rice season than in oilseed rape season, with radiation-temperature production potential of oilseed rape season significantly increased at a rate of 170.22 kg·hm?2·(10a)?1 under the direct seeding. Thus, it seems that the direct seeding has more potential to be explored for increasing yields in oilseed rape season in the future. Both seasons within the rice-oilseed rape double cropping system have faced problems such as a continuous decline of light resources and a constant rise of air temperature, and the adoption of transplanting pattern could increase the allocation of light and temperature resources to improve the radiation-temperature production potential by extending the crop reproductive period. Hence, adoption of transplanting in both seasons would be an effective measure to cope with climate change and have more production potential along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. Meanwhile, the delay of transplanting date would be helpful to cope with the warming at the seedling stage of oilseed rape and the flowering stage of rice. For direct seeding, the allocation of climatic resources was less than transplanting, and it is desirable to use high light-efficient varieties and to build crop populations with efficient use of temperature and light resources.
Keyword:  Rice-oilseed rape multiple cropping system  Resource allocation  Climate change  Planting pattern
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