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DOI:10.12357/cjea.20230334
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氮磷钾肥配施对薏苡不同部位籽粒 灌浆结实特性的影响
刘敏,宋碧,曾涛,魏盛,付敬锋,刘代铃,程乙
1.贵州大学农学院;2.贵州省药用植物繁育与种植重点实验室;3.贵州省粮油作物分子育种重点实验室
摘要:  探明氮、磷、钾肥不同配比对薏苡不同部位籽粒灌浆结实特性的影响,为薏苡高效施肥技术模式提供理论和技术支持。 以‘贵薏1号’为材料, 采用“3414”设计, 应用Richards方程对不同氮磷钾肥配施对薏苡5个部位籽粒的灌浆过程的影响进行了研究。结果表明:1)施用氮磷钾肥可改善薏苡上、中、下1、下2和下3部位籽粒灌浆速率达到最大时需要的天数、灌浆速率达到最大值的粒重、平均灌浆速率、最大灌浆速率, 延长籽粒活跃灌浆期, 进而提高薏苡结实特性。2)氮磷钾肥配施显著提高薏苡中部和下1部粒重, 在单因素肥效间表现为N>K>P, 在双因素肥效互作间表现为PK>NP>NK, 但过量施用氮磷钾肥会使粒重有所下降, 结实特性显著降低。3)相关性分析表明, 上、中、下1、下2和下3部位籽粒的千粒重与籽粒结实率、充实度、平均灌浆速率和最大灌浆速率呈正相关。4)拟合肥料与薏苡千粒重效应函数方程, 得出薏苡N、P2O5、K2O的最优推荐施肥范围分别为135.51~270.99 kg?hm?2、75.00~150.50 kg?hm?2、56.25~112.51 kg?hm?2。氮磷钾肥配显著影响薏苡不同部位籽粒灌浆结实特性, 适当比例的氮磷钾肥配合施用既可以显著促进籽粒灌浆、缩小部位间差异, 又可以提高结实率和粒重。在薏苡生产中, 氮肥对薏苡籽粒灌浆结实特性影响最大, 钾肥次之, 磷肥影响最小。
关键词:  氮磷钾配施  薏苡  籽粒部位  灌浆结实特性
中图分类号:S519;S143.5
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(32160516); 贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2021]一般270);贵州省特色粮油作物栽培与生理生态研究科技创新人才团队(黔科合平台人才项目[2019]5613号)、贵州省粮油作物分子育种重点实验室项目(黔科合中引地[2023]008)、贵州省高等学校功能农业重点实验室项目(黔教技[2023]007号)
Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on the characteristics of grain filling and fruiting in different parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L.
liumin1,2, songbi1,2,3, zengtao1, weisheng1, fujingfeng1, liudailing1, cheng yi4
1.College of Agriculture, Guizhou University;2.Key Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Breeding and Cultivation in Guizhou Province;3.Key Laboratory of Molecular Breeding for Grain and Oil Crops in Guizhou Province;4.贵州大学农学院
Abstract:  The development of spike traits in graminaceous plants is unbalanced, and so is that of Coix lacryma-jobi L.. Due to the sequential order of glume differentiation , the process of grouting and development between grains in different parts of the plant are not synchronised, which ultimately leads to inconsistency in maturity, and the differences between the strong and weak grains are highlighted with the increase in the number of secondary pedicels, thus limiting the further exploitation of the yield potential of Coix lacryma-jobi L.. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertiliser rationing is an enffective way to narrow the differences in grouting firming characteristics between seed parts, through comparing the effects of different N, P and K fertilizers on the dynamics of grain weight gain in different parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L., the parameters of the grouting characteristics, the fruiting characteristics and the effect of fertilizers, and to explore the optimal fertilization of Coix lacryma-jobi L. to provide theoretical and technical support for the model of Coix lacryma-jobi L.'s high-efficiency fertilization technology. Taking 'Guiyi No.1' as the material, Richards' equation was applied to study the grouting process of grains in five parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L. under different nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilisers in '3414' design. The results showed that 1) the application of N, P and K fertilizers could improve the number of days required to reach the maximum grouting rat of grains in the upper, middle, basal 1, basal 2 and basal 3 parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L., the grain weight at maximum grouting rate, the average grouting rate, the maximum seed filling rate, and the prolongation of the active seed filling period of grains, which would in turn improve the characteristics of Coix lacryma-jobi L. fruiting. 2) N, P and K fertilisers significantly increased the grain weight in the middle and basal parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L., with N>K>P among single-factor fertiliser effects, and PK>NP>NK among two-factor fertiliser interactions, but excessive application of N, P and K fertilisers decreased the grain weight, and the fruiting characteristics were significantly reduced. 3) Correlation analyses showed that the thousand-grain weights of grains in the upper, middle, basal 1, basal 2 and basal 3 parts of the plant were positively correlated with grain firmness, fullness, average grouting rate and maximum seed filling rate. 4) Fitting the equation of the effect of fertiliser on thousand-grain weight of Coix lacryma-jobi L., the optimal recommended fertiliser application ranges for it were 135.51~270.99 kg·hm-2, 75.00~150.50 kg·hm-2, and 56.25~112.51 kg·hm-2, for N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers significantly affect different parts of Coix lacryma-jobi L. grain filling and fruiting characteristics, and the appropriate proportion not only can significantly promote grain filling and reduce the differences between parts, but also can improve the fruiting rate and grain weight. In the production of Coix lacryma-jobi L., nitrogen fertiliser has the greatest influence on the grain filling and fruiting characteristics of Coix lacryma-jobi L., potassium fertiliser is the second largest, and phosphorus fertiliser has the smallest influence.
Keyword:  Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium rationing  Coix lacryma-jobi L.  Grain parts  Grain filling and setting characteristics
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