引用本文:李春喜,李斯斯,邵云,马守臣,刘晴,翁正鹏,李晓波. 有机物料还田对冬小麦农田土壤温室气体排放影响的研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(6): 815-824
LI Chunxi,LI Sisi,SHAO Yun,MA Shouchen,LIU Qing,WENG Zhengpeng,LI Xiaobo. Effects of organic waste application on soil greenhouse gas emissions of a winter wheat field[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(6): 815-824
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180913
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有机物料还田对冬小麦农田土壤温室气体排放影响的研究
李春喜1, 李斯斯1, 邵云1, 马守臣2, 刘晴1, 翁正鹏1, 李晓波1
1.河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007;2.河南理工大学测绘与国土信息工程学院 焦作 454000
摘要:  探讨有机物料还田对冬小麦田温室气体排放特性的影响,对提高经济效应和环境效应有积极意义。本研究应用静态箱-气相色谱法对秸秆还田(J)、秸秆还田+牛粪(JF)和秸秆还田+菌渣(JZ)3种有机物料还田下分别施氮肥243 kg (N)·hm-2(减氮10%,N1)、216 kg (N)·hm-2(减氮20%,N2)对冬小麦农田N2O、CO2和CH4的排放通量进行监测,探讨了不同施肥措施对麦田温室气体累积排放量、增温潜势的影响。试验期间同步记录每项农事活动机械燃油量、施肥量和灌溉量,测定产量,地上部生物量,估算农田碳截留。结果表明,冬小麦农田土壤N2O和CO2是排放源,是CH4的吸收汇,氮肥施入、灌溉以及强降水促进了土壤N2O和CO2的生成,却弱化了CH4作为大气吸收汇的特征。牛粪+秸秆(JF)处理N2O和CO2排放总量最高,分别为3.5 kg (N2O-N)·hm-2和19 689.67 kg (CO2-C)·hm-2,但CH4的吸收值最大,为5.33 kg (CH4-C)·hm-2,均显著高于菌渣+秸秆(JZ)和秸秆(J)处理(P<0.05);各处理N2O和CO2的总量随施氮量的增加呈升高趋势,CH4的总量随施氮量的增加而呈降低趋势。JFN2、JN2和JZN2处理农田综合增温潜势(GWP)均为负值,表明有机物料还田且减氮20%条件下农田生态系统为大气的碳汇,麦季净截留碳1 038~2 024 kg·hm-2,其他处理GWP值均为正。JZN2处理小麦产量为8 061 kg·hm-2,显著高于JFN2处理(P<0.05)。综上所述,JZN2处理不仅能够保证小麦产量,且对环境效应最有利,为本区域冬小麦较优的施肥管理模式。
关键词:  秸秆还田  菌渣  牛粪  减氮  冬小麦田  温室气体  产量  全球增温潜势
中图分类号:S512.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFD0300203-3,2018YFD0300708-4)资助
Effects of organic waste application on soil greenhouse gas emissions of a winter wheat field
LI Chunxi1, LI Sisi1, SHAO Yun1, MA Shouchen2, LIU Qing1, WENG Zhengpeng1, LI Xiaobo1
1.College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China;2.School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China
Abstract:  Exploring the impact of returning organic materials to the soil on greenhouse gas emission characteristics of winter wheat fields can help to improve economic and environmental consequences. Based on 3 modes of organic material return (JF:straw return and cow dung; J:straw return; JZ:straw return and mushroom dregs) and 2 nitrogen levels (N1:243 kg·hm-2; N2:216 kg·hm-2), the fluxes of N2O, CO2, and CH4 in winter wheat fields were monitored using the static chamber method and gas chromatography, and the effects of the different fertilization measures on cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and warming potential of wheat fields were studied. During the experimental period, the amount of fuel consumed by farm machines and the power consumed during irrigation and fertilizer application were recorded and transformed to their carbon equivalents using a transformation coefficient. In addition, crop yield and aboveground biomasses were measured and carbon sequestration calculated. The total GWP under each of the 6 treatments were estimated based on the identified parameters of the greenhouse effect. The results indicated that wheat fields served as sources of N2O and CO2 and sinks of CH4. Nitrogen application and adequate irrigation increased CO2 and N2O in the soil, but weakened the characteristics of CH4 as an atmospheric absorption sink. The total amounts of N2O and CO2 emitted were highest in the JF treatment, at 3.5 kg (N2O-N)·hm-2 and 19 689.67 kg (CO2-C) hm-2 respectively, and the absorption value of CH4 in this treatment was 5.33 kg (CH4-C) hm-2, significantly higher than in both of the JZ and J treatments. The total amounts of N2O and CO2 in each treatment increased, and the total amount of CH4 decreased, with an increase in the nitrogen application rate. The GWP of JFN2, JN2, and JZN2 treatments were all negative, which indicated that the farmland ecosystem is an atmospheric carbon sink when organic materials were returned to the field; nitrogen was reduced by 20%, and the carbon interception by wheat was 1 038-2 024 kg·hm-2. The GWP values were positive and the JZN2 treatment-treated wheat yield was 8 061 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than that of the JFN2 treatment. In summary, JZN2 treatment could ensure wheat yield and had the most favorable environmental effects, and thus was the best fertilization management model for winter wheat in this region
Keyword:  Straw returning  Mushroom dregs  Cow dung  Nitrogen reduction  Winter wheat field  Greenhouse gas  Yield  Global warming potential
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