引用本文:杨梅,刘章勇. 农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(6): 787-794
YANG Mei,LIU Zhangyong. Agricultural land sharing/sparing and their potential effects on biodiversity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(6): 787-794
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996
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农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应
杨梅1,2, 刘章勇1
1.长江大学主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心 荆州 434025;2.长江大学农学院 荆州 434025
摘要:  农业在生物多样性维持方面扮演重要角色,农业既是生物多样性的传递者,同时集约化农业也是导致生物多样性降低的主要原因。“土地共享”和“土地分离”是重要的协调粮食产量和生物多样性保护的土地利用策略,前者关注的是农田环境的改善,后者指通过土地利用集约化,提高作物单产,释放出更多土地用于自然保护。目前,对于哪一种土地利用方式更有利于生物多样性保护仍是有争议的。本研究综述了上述两种土地利用策略的优缺点及其对生物多样性的影响,并分析归纳了应用和选择土地利用方式时应考虑的因素,如:对集约化敏感的物种;景观背景、景观尺度和景观结构;社会经济因素等。在此基础上,展望了该理论对我国未来农业发展的启示,包括:因地制宜规划农业景观格局,如考虑区域的产量潜力和特有物种;发展可持续集约化农业和加强“溢出效应”的管理,提高生态系统自我恢复能力;在不同景观尺度上建立土地共享-分离混合模式,在集约化农业地区适度恢复农用林业。
关键词:  生物多样性  粮食供给  土地共享  土地分离  农业景观  集约化农业  有机农业
中图分类号:S181;Q149
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2016YFD0300208-04)和长江大学湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心开放基金(KF201610)资助
Agricultural land sharing/sparing and their potential effects on biodiversity
YANG Mei1,2, LIU Zhangyong1
1.Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China;2.College of Agronomy, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
Abstract:  Agricultural systems are complicated by both the efforts to produce food and protecting biodiversity. Intensive agriculture is the main reason for the decline in agro-biodiversity across the world. Land sparing and land sharing have been important land use strategies in maintaining a balance between food production and biodiversity conservation. The former advocates the improvement of farm environments and therefore expected to be a wildlife-friendly landscape. However, the latter proposes that the land should divide into two categories, one for intensive land utilization, the other one for biodiversity conservation. Thus a debate has risen as to which approach was better for biodiversity. In this review, we highlighted the benefits and limits of the two land use strategies and the effects of each on biodiversity. Furthermore, the factors were discussed, which guided the choice towards any of the land use strategies, including plant species sensitive to intensive farming, landscape-specific conditions, landscape scale/structure and socio-economic factors. On this basis, the resourceful application of the two land use approaches in future agriculture development was proposed. This included: 1) designing agricultural landscape structure suitable for local circumstances, e.g., yield potential and conservation of endemic species; 2) promoting sustainable agricultural intensification and enhancing the management of “spillover effects” to increase the recovery ability of the ecosystem; and 3) developing intermediate approaches or mixtures of land sharing and land sparing at different spatial scales, e.g., planting trees on farms in intensive agricultural areas.
Keyword:  Biodiversity  Provisionment  Land sharing  Land sparing  Agricultural landscape  Intensive agriculture  Organic agriculture
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