引用本文:卢慧宇,杜文婷,张弘弢,徐佳星,韩燕,郑景瑞,王仁杰,杨学云,张树兰. 水肥管理及生物炭施用对作物产量和磷效率及磷淋失的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(1): 187-196
LU Huiyu,DU Wenting,ZHANG Hongtao,XU Jiaxing,HAN Yan,ZHENG Jingrui,WANG Renjie,YANG Xueyun,ZHANG Shulan. Effects of water and nutrient management and biochar application on crop yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and phosphorus leaching[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(1): 187-196
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200513
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水肥管理及生物炭施用对作物产量和磷效率及磷淋失的影响
卢慧宇,杜文婷,张弘弢,徐佳星,韩燕,郑景瑞,王仁杰,杨学云,张树兰
西北农林科技大学资源环境学院/农业部西北植物营养与环境重点实验室 杨凌 712100
摘要:  为探讨中国北方褐土区典型种植模式——冬小麦-夏玉米体系水分优化、养分优化以及生物炭施用对作物产量、磷效率和磷素淋失的影响,2016—2019年于陕西杨凌土(黄土母质,自然褐土发育)区进行田间渗漏池试验,设计习惯水肥(CP1、CP2,CP1处理渗漏池深为120~150 cm,CP2处理渗漏池深为100 cm)、灌水优化(CP1-W)、养分优化(CP1-F)、水分养分优化(OPT)、习惯水肥+生物炭(CP2+B)以及水分养分优化+生物炭(OPT+B)7个处理,研究作物产量、磷肥偏生产力和磷素淋失的响应。结果表明,CP1-W、CP1-F和OPT处理3年平均冬小麦、夏玉米及作物总产量均与CP1处理无显著差异。CP1-F和OPT处理较CP1处理均显著增加磷肥偏生产力,平均增幅分别为69.3%和56.4%。与CP1处理相比,CP1-W和CP1-F均没有显著影响各形态磷的淋失量,而OPT处理的颗粒磷淋失量显著减少58.4%。施用生物炭对3年平均作物总产量无显著影响,而在CP2+B处理磷肥偏生产力显著提高43.6%;在OPT+B处理磷肥偏生产力无显著变化。CP2+B处理各形态磷素的淋失量均与CP2处理相似,OPT+B处理第1年可溶性有机磷、颗粒磷和总磷淋失量较OPT处理分别显著降低60.0%、57.1%和62.4%,但后两年OPT+B处理总磷淋失量却显著增加。综合3年的结果发现,在不同条件下施用生物炭对各形态磷素淋失均无显著影响。上述结果表明,褐土区在农户水肥的基础上合理降低水肥用量,可以提高磷肥利用率,降低磷素淋失量,保障作物产量;而施用冬小麦秸秆生物炭对作物产量、磷素淋失无显著影响,对磷肥偏生产力的影响结果不一致,有待进一步研究。
关键词:  冬小麦-夏玉米体系  水肥调控  生物炭  作物产量  磷肥偏生产力  磷素淋失
中图分类号:S151+.22
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800105)资助
Effects of water and nutrient management and biochar application on crop yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and phosphorus leaching
LU Huiyu1,2, DU Wenting1,2, ZHANG Hongtao1,2, XU Jiaxing1,2, HAN Yan1,2, ZHENG Jingrui1,2, WANG Renjie1,2, YANG Xueyun1,2, ZHANG Shulan1,2
1.College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&2.F University/Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, China
Abstract:  Excessive water and chemical fertilizer application is often reported in North China winter wheat-summer maize rotation systems, resulting in economic losses and environmental issues. Therefore, optimizing water and nutrients (e.g., P) for crop yield is important. A 3-year field lysimeter experiment was performed on Lou soil (loess-derived and developed on natural cinnamon soil) in Yangling, Shaanxi Province, Northwest China, to investigate P use efficiency and P leaching of winter wheat-summer maize rotation systems in cinnamon soil. Seven treatments were used to investigate crop yield, P partial productivity (PFPP), and P leaching: conventional practices (CP1, lysimeter depth = 120–150 cm; CP2, lysimeter depth = 100 cm), CP1 plus reduced water supply (CP1-W), CP1 plus reduced nutrient supply (CP1-F), CP1 plus reduced water and nutrient supplies (OPT), CP2 plus biochar application (CP2+B), and OPT plus biochar application (OPT+B). The results showed that the mean wheat, maize, and total wheat + maize yields were similar among CP1, CP1-W, CP1-F, and OPT. Compared with CP1, CP1-F and OPT significantly increased PFPP by an average of 69.3% and 56.4%, respectively. CP1-W and CP1-F did not affect P leaching, but annual particulate phosphorus leaching decreased significantly under OPT treatment (by 58.4%). Biochar use did not affect the mean annual crop yield, but CP2+B significantly increased PFPP (by 43.6%) compared with CP2. OPT-B did not affect PFPP compared with OPT. Each year, all forms of leached P were similar between CP2 and CP2+B. In the first treatment year, OPT+B significantly decreased (compared with OPT) the dissolved organic phosphorus, particulate phosphorus, and total phosphorus (TP) leaching losses by 60.0%, 57.1%, and 62.4%, respectively, but TP leaching increased significantly in the following 2 years. The 3-year average showed that biochar application did not affect P loss. Therefore, only reducing water and fertilizer applications to cinnamon soil may improve P use efficiency and reduce P leaching while maintaining crop yield. Applying wheat straw biochar did not affect crop yield or P leaching, and the effect on PFPP was inconsistent. Further studies are needed to clarify the effectiveness of biochar application.
Keyword:  Winter wheat-summer maize rotation system  Water and fertilizer optimization  Biochar  Crop yield  Partial factor productivity of phosphorus  P leaching loss
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