引用本文:刘静,朱鑫宇,李顺江,康凌云,马茂亭,杜连凤. 地下水位波动对不同施氮量农田土壤硝态氮运移影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(1): 154-162
LIU Jing,ZHU Xinyu,LI Shunjiang,KANG Lingyun,MA Maoting,DU Lianfeng. Effects of groundwater fluctuation on nitrate nitrogen transport after nitrogen application in cropland soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(1): 154-162
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200707
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地下水位波动对不同施氮量农田土壤硝态氮运移影响
刘静, 朱鑫宇, 李顺江, 康凌云, 马茂亭, 杜连凤
北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所 北京 100097
摘要:  明确地下水位波动对农田土壤剖面和地下水NO3--N运移的影响,可为减少土壤氮素淋失、降低地下水硝酸盐污染风险提供依据。本研究采用大型土柱温室种植甘蓝,研究2种水位波动(水位不变、水位每隔10 d波动20 cm)和3种施氮量[0 kg(N)·hm-2、225 kg(N)·hm-2、450 kg(N)·hm-2]对土壤含水量、土壤溶液NO3--N浓度、地下水NO3--N浓度和作物产量的影响。结果表明,水位波动和施氮肥对NO3--N运移的影响与土壤剖面深度有关。0~20 cm包气带土壤NO3--N含量受施氮量影响,过量施氮肥[450 kg(N)·hm-2]导致该剖面NO3--N累积。20~60 cm水位波动带土壤NO3--N含量受施氮量和水位波动的共同作用:施氮量增加提高NO3--N含量;水位波动降低剖面土壤NO3--N含量,水位上升和下降均促进土壤NO3--N随着水流运动向下层迁移;剖面土壤硝态氮含量高,增加NO3--N进入地下水的风险。60~80 cm淹水区剖面土壤NO3--N含量较低。作物产量受水位波动影响不显著。在地下水位埋深较浅的农业区进行氮素污染防控时,不可忽视水位波动对NO3--N运移的影响。
关键词:  水位波动  施氮量  土壤溶液  硝态氮  运移  地下水  产量
中图分类号:S273
基金项目:国家“十三五”重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800104)、国家自然科学基金项目(41907078)和北京市自然科学基金项目(8202020)资助
Effects of groundwater fluctuation on nitrate nitrogen transport after nitrogen application in cropland soil
LIU Jing, ZHU Xinyu, LI Shunjiang, KANG Lingyun, MA Maoting, DU Lianfeng
Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
Abstract:  Understanding the effects of groundwater fluctuations on nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) transport in the soil vertical profile is important for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching and nitrate pollution in croplands with shallow groundwater. This study investigated effects of groundwater fluctuations and nitrogen application rate in a greenhouse cabbage with large soil column experimental devices. Two groundwater fluctuation levels (W0, stable; W1, 20 cm fluctuation per 10 days) and three levels of nitrogen application (N0, 0 kg(N)·hm-2; N1, 225 kg(N)·hm-2; N2, 450 kg(N)·hm-2) were tested to determine water contents and NO3--N concentration changes at different soil depths,NO3--N concentration in groundwater, and crop yield. The results showed that fluctuating groundwater affected NO3--N transport depending on the soil depth and nitrogen application rate. At 0–20 cm depth (part of the vadose zone), excessive N application led to NO3--N accumulation in soil, but there was no correlation with groundwater fluctuation. At 20–60 cm depth (groundwater fluctuation zone), increased N fertilizer increased the soil NO3--N, and groundwater level changes promoted NO3--N migration into deeper soil, increasing the NO3--N groundwater pollution risk (especially in soil with already high NO3--N concentrations). At 60–80 cm depth (the flooding area), there was less NO3--N in soil, mainly due to denitrification. Crop yield did not significantly correlate with groundwater level changes. Groundwater fluctuations affected = NO3--N transport and should be considered in agricultural areas with shallow groundwater levels to prevent and control nitrogen pollution.
Keyword:  Groundwater fluctuation  Nitrogen application rate  Soil solution  Nitrate nitrogen  Transport  Groundwater  Yield
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