引用本文:骆晓声,寇长林,王小非,李太魁,王洪媛. 施氮量对潮土区冬小麦-夏玉米轮作农田氮磷淋溶的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(1): 29-37
LUO Xiaosheng,KOU Changlin,WANG Xiaofei,LI Taikui,WANG Hongyuan. Effects of nitrogen application on nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in fluvo-aquic soil on a winter wheat-summer maize rotation farmland[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(1): 29-37
DOI:10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200548
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器   关闭   
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 569次   下载 279 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
施氮量对潮土区冬小麦-夏玉米轮作农田氮磷淋溶的影响
骆晓声1, 寇长林1, 王小非1, 李太魁1, 王洪媛2
1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 郑州 450002;2.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 北京 100081
摘要:  潮土是我国华北地区主要土壤类型之一,潮土区是我国冬小麦-夏玉米作物的主要产区,研究不同施氮量潮土氮磷淋溶特征对于指导区域农田面源污染防控具有重要意义。本研究设置3个施肥处理,即传统施氮(CON)、优化施氮(OPT)和优化再减氮(OPTJ),利用田间渗漏池法,研究潮土冬小麦-夏玉米轮作农田硝态氮及总磷淋溶特征。结果表明:2016-2018年,冬小麦-夏玉米轮作周年不同施肥处理90 cm土层年淋溶水量79.0~102.5 mm,不同淋溶事件间土壤淋溶液硝态氮浓度波动较大,CON、OPT和OPTJ处理单次淋溶事件硝态氮浓度分别为18.9~208.7(平均为72.7)mg·L-1、9.0~99.2(平均为33.8)mg·L-1、4.7~55.5(平均为15.4)mg·L-1。本研究区域冬小麦-夏玉米轮作模式的氮素淋溶风险较高,磷素淋溶风险较低。传统施氮处理(CON)下农田硝态氮的平均淋溶量和表观淋失系数分别为66.4 kg·hm-2和10.3%,而总磷(TP)为0.06 kg·hm-2和0.04%。氮肥减施会显著降低氮素淋失,OPT和OPTJ处理的氮素淋溶减排率可达56.3%和78.9%。两个年度CON、OPT和OPTJ处理硝态氮平均表观淋失系数分别为10.3%、6.2%和4.9%,随着施氮量的增加,硝态氮淋失系数动态增加。氮淋溶具有较大的年际变化,降雨量高的2018年比降雨少的2017年硝态氮淋溶量多57.0%。两个年度CON、OPT和OPTJ处理总磷平均淋溶量分别为0.06 kg·hm-2、0.06 kg·hm-2和0.08 kg·hm-2。适量减施氮肥会增加作物产量,OPT处理的作物产量是CON处理的1.08倍。然而,过量减施则会带来减产风险,OPTJ处理氮肥减施56%,作物产量比CON处理降低2.0%~8.1%。总之,潮土区农田硝态氮淋溶风险较大,适量减施氮肥能够在保证作物产量的基础上显著降低氮素淋失损失。
关键词:  潮土  施氮量  淋溶  冬小麦-夏玉米轮作  硝态氮  总磷  产量
中图分类号:X523
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800101)和河南省农业科学院优秀青年科技基金项目(2020YQ22)资助
Effects of nitrogen application on nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in fluvo-aquic soil on a winter wheat-summer maize rotation farmland
LUO Xiaosheng1, KOU Changlin1, WANG Xiaofei1, LI Taikui1, WANG Hongyuan2
1.Institute of Plant Nutrition, Resources and Environmental Sciences, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China;2.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:  Fluvo-aquic soil is predominant in the North China Plain, where a large amount of wheat and corn are grown in China. Understanding the relationship between nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and nitrogen application is important for preventing and controlling nonpoint source pollution in this area. The field seepage pool method was used to explore nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus leaching in fluvo-aquic soil on a winter wheat and summer maize rotation farmland. Three fertilization treatments were tested: traditional nitrogen application (CON), optimized nitrogen application (OPT), and optimized nitrogen plus nitrogen reduction (OPTJ). The results showed that from 2016 to 2018, the annual leachate volume from the 90 cm soil layer was between 79.0 and 102.5 mm (all treatments). The leached nitrate nitrogen concentrations were 18.9-208.7 (average 72.7) mg·L-1 (CON), 9.0-99.2 (average 33.8) mg·L-1 (OPT), and 4.7-55.5 (average 15.4) mg·L-1 (OPTJ), fluctuating among leaching events. The nitrogen leaching risk was higher, and the phosphorus leaching risk was lower in the fluvo-aquic soil area. The average leaching amount was 66.4 kg·hm-2 and apparent leaching loss coefficient was 10.3% for nitrate nitrogen; these values for total phosphorus were 0.06 kg·hm-2 and 0.04%, respectively. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer decreased nitrogen leaching by 56.3% (OPT) and 78.9% (OPTJ), and the apparent leaching coefficients were 10.3% (CON), 6.2% (OPT), and 4.9% (OPTJ), indicating that nitrate nitrogen leaching increased as nitrogen fertilizer increased. Nitrogen leaching had interannual variation; 2018 had high rainfall, and the leaching amount was 57.0% higher than in 2017, which had low rainfall. During the sampling years, the total phosphorus leached was 0.06 kg·hm-2 (CON), 0.06 kg·hm-2 (OPT), and 0.08 kg·hm-2 (OPTJ). A moderate nitrogen fertilizer reduction increased crop yield; the OPT yield was 1.08 times higher than the CON yield. However, excessive fertilizer reduction decreased yield. OPTJ had 56% less nitrogen than CON, and the yield decreased by 2.0%-8.1%. The partial factor productivities were 25.3 kg·hm-2 (CON), 35.7 kg·hm-2 (OPT), and 57.4 kg·hm-2 (OPTJ) for winter wheat and 28.5 kg·hm-2 (CON), 44.8 kg·hm-2 (OPT), and 62.7 kg·hm-2 (OPTJ) for summer maize. The nitrogen fertilizer partial factor productivities of OPT and OPTJ were significantly higher than that of CON. These results showed that the nitrate nitrogen leaching potential was high in fluvo-aquic soil, and reducing nitrogen fertilizer could significantly reduce nitrogen loss without decreasing crop yield. Considering crop yield and nitrate nitrogen leaching risk together, the optimal nitrogen amount for winter wheat and summer maize farmland in the study area was 465 kg·hm-2. When nitrogen decreased to 285 kg·hm-2, nitrogen leaching sharply decreased, but the crop yield decreased slightly.
Keyword:  Fluvo-aquic soil  Nitrogen application rate  Leaching  Winter wheat-summer maize rotation system  Nitrate nitrogen  Total phosphorus  Yield
您是第 6000627 位访问者  冀ICP备05003362号-2
版权所有 ©《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》编辑部
地址:河北省石家庄市裕华区槐中路286号 050022 电话:0311-85818007 E-mail:editor@sjziam.ac.cn
技术支持:北京勤云科技发展有限公司