|摘要: 一定地域内的农业发展与其自然条件、社会经济和技术条件紧密相关, 而农业不同发展阶段对环境的影响深受所采取的农作制度的影响, 这恰恰是传统研究中重视不够的地方。基于文献回顾, 本文以不同农业发展阶段农作制度的变迁及其对农业环境的影响为切入点, 论述了历史时期黄淮海平原农业不同发展阶段农作制度演变的主要特点, 以及农作制度的变迁对农业生产环境的影响。黄淮海平原的农业发展与黄河下游河道的稳定与否密切相关。南宋黄河改道以前, 黄河下游在河北平原长期摆动, 加上战争的破坏, 导致河北平原农业发展大部长期落后于黄淮平原。黄淮平原则在黄河南流的漫长时期内深受河患影响。在现代农业科技光临黄淮海平原以前, 黄淮海平原的农作制度深受自然环境的影响, 只是在对环境适应的前提下的细微改进,其对环境的作用主要体现于平原自然植被被人工植被安全替代后, 因林木需求而导致山地植被的破坏、山地土壤侵蚀加剧, 从而导致下游地区的河道淤塞、湖泊消失、排水不畅和大面积的盐碱地出现, 最终恶化了农业生产环境, 使得农业生产水平长期维持较低水平。
|关键词: 黄淮海平原 农作制度 环境演变 历史时期 农业发展
|Interactions between evolution of farming systems and environment for agricultural production in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during the historic period
LIN Zhong-Hui, MO Xing-Guo
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
|Abstract: Agricultural development in a certain geographical region is closely related to its natural resource base and development level of socio-economy and technology. The effects of agricultural production on the environment is changing with the evolution of farming systems. Based on a literature analysis, the interactions between the development of farming systems and the environment for agricultural production in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during the historic period were discussed. Agricultural development of North China Plain during the historic period was closely related to the channel stability of the lower reach of Yellow River. Before Song Dynasty, the low level of agricultural production in the Hebei Plain compared to the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain was the results of the channel shifts of the Yellow River in the Hebei Plain coupled with the destruction of war. After Song Dynasty, agricultural development of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain was suffering from the Yellow River in a long period of time. Before modern agricultural science and technology was transferred into the North China Plain, farming systems was mainly constrained by the natural environment, but a slight improvement. The effects of development of farming systems on the environment were mainly the removal of natural vegetation because of artificial plants, the destruction of natural vegetation in mountain area due to the need of timber, the blockage of river downstream, the disappearance of lake, the poor drainage and the area increasing of saline land. Therefore, the worsening environment led to the low level of agricultural production in the North China Plain in a long historic period.
|Keyword: Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Farming systems Environmental degradation Historic period Agricultural development